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Types of Flour

Types of Flour


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Find out what flour will best suit your next baked homemade treat.

Flour Glossary

Different flours have varying levels of protein and fiber, which affect the final baked product. Here are the ones Cooking Light often uses.

Eating healthy should still be delicious.

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All-Purpose Flour: As its name states, this flour has many uses and is the one most frequently used in baking. It's a middle-of-the-road flour in terms of protein content, and produces tender cakes.

Whole-Wheat Flour: Milled from the complete wheat kernel (both the bran and the germ) this flour retains many nutrients and is higher in fiber than many other flours. It gives baked products a nuttier flavor and denser texture than all-purpose flour, which is why it's often mixed with all-purpose flour.

Cake Flour: Cake flour has the least protein and yields very light baked goods, making it ideal for delicate products such as sponge cakes and some cookie doughs.

Pastry Flour: Containing only a bit more protein than cake flour, pastry flour is made by grinding soft wheat into a fine flour. It's good for making feathery light pastries, pies, and cookies. It's available in a whole-wheat variety, too.

Bread Flour: Bread flour has the most protein and is used to make denser items, including breads and pizza dough, where you want a chewier texture.


16 Delicious Ways to Use All-Purpose Flour

Courtesy of Gimme Some Oven

No matter the size of your pantry, it's highly likely you have some all-purpose flour hiding on one of the shelves. Maybe you use it regularly for baking, or you keep it on hand for thickening soup or for breading chicken tenders. Or maybe you've picked up a giant bag of flour that one time you made cookies for Christmas, and it's now just sitting sadly in your kitchen, waiting to be put to work.

Fist things first: If you're unsure your flour is still usable, look at the expiration date. If your all-purpose flour is up to six months past its expiration date, it's likely still OK to use. But trust your senses here—if the smell or taste seems off in any way, you're probably better off tossing it. Worst case scenario, you may see bugs crawling in it, in which case, it's obviously time to toss it (and maybe clean out your pantry).

Flour may not be the first thing that comes to mind when you're brainstorming things you can make from pantry staples. That's where we come in! Use this article to jog your memory and come back to classics you've forgotten about, or get a few new ideas for ways to use up all-purpose flour.


Flour Power: Your Definitive Guide to Baking With White, Wheat, and More

Wheat, whole-wheat, bleached, gluten-free…when it comes to baking with flour, there are more choices than ever. It's a big, scary world in the field of flour, so we spoke to four experts: baker Alex Bois of Philadelphia's High Street on Market (one of our 2014 Best New Restaurants!) Susan Reid, editorial director of Sift (King Arthur Flour's publication) Alice Medrich, the author of the new alternative (non-wheat)-flour cookbook, Flavor Flours and baker extraordinaire and Maria Speck, food writer and author of the thoughtfully-researched Ancient Grains for Modern Meals. Tie on an apron–we're about to take a deep dive into the flour bin.

Wheat's seed head (the top of the plant) is made from three portions: the germ, the bran, and the endosperm. White flour has been stripped of the bran and germ, leaving behind the fine, pale endosperm. It is more shelf-stable than whole wheat flour, but as a result, has a milder flavor and less nutritive qualities—the bulk of the fiber and protein are contained in the bran and germ. Whole wheat flour is made from grinding all three portions of the seed head. Small-scale millers will often grind the seed head whole, but large, commercial millers frequently separate the portions and then add the bran and germ back in to the endosperm for "Frankensteined" whole wheat flour.

Whole wheat flour is more absorbent than white flour, thus requiring more liquid. This results in extra-sticky doughs that can be challenging for beginning bakers to work with. If you're interested in making whole wheat bread, swap 25% of your white flour for whole wheat to start, and increase as you become more skilled at kneading a wet dough. Depending on the grind, whole wheat flour can be very coarse, with large pieces of bran. These sharp granules can slice through protein chains, shredding gluten and making bread doughs crumbly, rather than elastic and chewy. Avoid this by not overworking the dough.

You may encounter flour labeled as "white whole wheat." This is not a bleached flour (see below for more on bleaching). White whole wheat is a whole (endosperm, germ, and bran) flour ground from a paler variety of wheat. It tastes slightly sweeter thanks to a lower tannin content than traditional whole wheat, and contributes to a lighter color in baked goods.

White flour is sometimes treated by bleaching, either with chlorine or benzoyl peroxide (yep, the same stuff as in zit cream). Bleaching flour damages its starch and protein content, and speeds up the "curing" process, which would occur naturally over the course of a couple of weeks. Cured flour is easier to work with, making doughs less gummy and more malleable. Bleached white flours also absorb more liquid than unbleached white flours, and rise better than whole wheat flours.

Most of the common types of wheat flour (bread, pastry, etc.) are available as both white and whole wheat.

"If you only stock your kitchen with one variety of flour, it should be AP," says Reid. All-purpose flour contains just the seed head's endosperm, making it much more shelf-stable than whole wheat flour. Unfortunately, that also means that it contains less nutritious qualities, like fiber and protein. AP flour can be bleached or unbleached.

Best for: Cookies, bread, baked goods.
Don't use for: No restrictions, but you should sift it first for very tender baked goods.


Your Guide To 11 Different Types Of Flour&mdashAnd How To Use Them

Whether or not you&rsquore the star baker of your friend group, knowing how to whip up some last-minute birthday cupcakes or morning-after pancakes is a valuable skill.

Sure, a good recipe and some basic kitchen skills go a long way in making you feel like a Great British Baking Show competitor, but you also need to understand your ingredients. A good place to start: the billion different types of flour out there.

Not so long ago, you just had all-purpose, whole-wheat, or self-rising flour to choose from. These days, though, supermarkets sell wheat-based flours with varying gluten contents, alternative grain flours, and even grain-free flours. From oat flour to almond flour to cake flour, where do you even start?

Since each has its own unique taste, texture, nutrient profile, and culinary use, these flours shouldn't be used interchangeably. If a recipe calls for a certain type of flour, trust me, there's a reason.

Use this guide to all the types of flours out there (which features the expert insight of Elliot Prag, lead chef of Health-Supportive Culinary Arts at the Institute of Culinary Education in New York City) and you'll feel like a Food Network star the next time you're in the baking aisle.

Essentially the most basic flour, all-purpose flour is made from processed wheat.

It contains a moderate amount of protein (gluten) and, like other white flours, is made from only the endosperm of the wheat kernel, without the nutrient-rich germ or bran.

&ldquoWhite flour has little to no vitamins and minerals,&rdquo Prag says. &ldquoHowever, it provides a relatively strong gluten structure that's suitable for breads, quick breads, and cookies."

Per ¼ cup: 110 calories, 1 g fat (0 g sat), 5 mg sodium, 23 g carbs, 0 g sugar 1 g fiber, 2 g protein

Like all-purpose flour, bread flour is one of the types of flour made with only wheat's endosperm.

However, compared to all-purpose flour, &ldquoit has as very high protein (gluten) content, which is suitable in bread for strong structure and chew,&rdquo Prag says.

Per ¼ cup: 110 calories, 0.5 g fat (0 g sat), 0 mg sodium, 23 g carbs, 0 g sugar, 1 g fiber, 4 g protein

&ldquoCake flour is a very finely milled, starchy white flour with very low protein (gluten) content suitable for making tender, delicate, soft, fluffy textured baked goods,&rdquo Prag says.

In other words, less gluten means less &ldquochew,&rdquo which is what you want in airy cakes.

Per ¼ cup: 110 calories, 0 g fat (0 g sat), 0 mg sodium, 24 g carbs, 0 g sugar, 1 g fiber, 2 g protein

&ldquoSimilar to cake flour but a little less starchy and fine, pastry flour also has low gluten content for delicate pastries,&rdquo Prag says.

It&rsquos great for pie crusts, cookies, and muffins that aren&rsquot quite as delicate as cakes.

Per ¼ cup: 120 calories, 0.5 g fat (0 g sat), 1 mg sodium, 26 g carbs, 0 g sugar, 1 g fiber, 3 g protein

Self-rising flour is essentially &ldquoall-purpose white flour with chemical leavener added,&rdquo Prag says. Usually, it&rsquos white flour mixed with baking powder and salt.

Generally, you&rsquore better off buying all-purpose flour (which is more versatile and called for in recipes more often) and adding baking powder or baking soda as recipes instruct.

Per ¼ cup: 110 calories, 0 g fat (0 g sat), 320 mg sodium, 22 g carbs, 0 g sugar, <1 g fiber, 3 g protein

Unlike white flour, whole-wheat flour is made with all three components of the wheat kernel, the endosperm, germ, and bran.

As a result, whole-wheat flour contains fiber, minerals (selenium, manganese, phosphorus, copper), and B vitamins, Prag says.

Whole-wheat flours can range from lower-gluten concentrations more suitable for tender pastry (sold as whole-wheat pastry flour) to higher-gluten concentrations suitable for chewy bread (whole-wheat bread flour).

Per ¼ cup: 120 calories, 0.5 g fat (0 g sat), 1 mg sodium, 24 g carbs, 0 g sugar, 4 g fiber, 4.6 g protein

&ldquoOat flour has a pleasant taste but tends to create a drier, denser baked product because of its higher liquid absorbency,&rdquo Prag says.

&ldquoAlone, oat flour will not provide any structure to baked goods," he adds. It's usually paired with a starch (like potato, arrowroot, kuzu, or tapioca) to get the job done.

Though oat flour can be gluten-free, it&rsquos important to look for a gluten-free label, since oat products are sometimes cross-contaminated with gluten-containing grains.

Per ¼ cup: 160 calories, 3 g fat (0.5 g sat), 0 mg sodium, 26 g carbs, 0 g sugar, 4 g fiber, 7 g protein

&ldquoMade from refined durum wheat, semolina flour is very high in protein (gluten), which creates density and chew," says Prag. "It&rsquos most commonly used in box pasta to create that al dente texture signature of well-cooked pasta.&rdquo

Besides pasta, it&rsquos also used to make dense, hearty semolina bread.

Per ¼ cup: 150 calories, 0.5 g fat (0 g sat), 0 mg sodium, 31 g carbs, 1 g sugar, 2 g fiber, 5 g protein

&ldquoGluten-free flours&mdash those that are not made with wheat, spelt, rye or barley&mdashare complicated to bake with as they can&rsquot create structure without the addition of starches,&rdquo Prag says.

The nutritional profiles of gluten-free flours (like sorghum, brown rice, or buckwheat) vary greatly, but they generally provide more vitamins and minerals.

One issue: To make up for the lack of gluten, many gluten-free flours or flour mixes contain large proportions of simple starches such as white rice flour, arrowroot, or tapioca, which don&rsquot provide much in the way of nutrition, says Prag.

Certain gluten-free flour blends, like Cup4Cup, have been expertly developed to best mimic the properties of all-purpose flour in baking.

Per ¼ cup (Cup4Cup flour): 120 calories, 0 g fat (0 g sat), 15 mg sodium, 26 g carbs, 1 g sugar, 0 g fiber, 2 g protein

&ldquoAlmond flour is a dense flour high in protein with a pleasant taste," Prag says. (It's low carb count also makes it a popular keto option.)

&ldquoHowever, since it doesn't contain gluten, almond flour requires other elements, like starches, bananas, or peanut butter to add structure.&rdquo In other words, something baked only with almond flour will be very flat and dense, because there&rsquos no gluten to help with chew.

Still, almond flour adds excellent flavor and is commonly used with other flours or leaveners in cakes and cookies.

Per ¼ cup: 160 calories, 14 g fat (1 g sat), 0 mg sodium, 6 g carbs, 1 g sugar, 3 g fiber, 6 g protein

Similar to almond flour, coconut flour has a strong flavor, Prag says. Though lower in fat and higher in protein than almond flour, it still lacks gluten, so, again, you'll need to combine it with structure-providing ingredients.

Coconut flour, which is very dense on its own, works well to bind batters and can be cooked into grain-free pancakes or used alongside other gluten-free flours in baking.

Per ¼ cup: 120 calories, 3 g fat (2 g sat), 20 mg sodium, 18 g carbs, 6 g sugar, 10 g fiber, 6 g protein


Flour 101: Different Types of Flour and When to Use Them

We’re talking about flour today! All different types of flour, as well as when and why you would use them for different baking applications.

This post is going to get a bit nerdy and technical (remember this salt post?), but I love when that happens. In an effort to keep things simple, this post is focused on baking flour varieties produced from various strains of wheat. All of the flour varieties described below are standard flours available in most grocery stores.

If you enjoy understanding the whys and hows of baking, you will love this post. If you’ve ever wondered the difference between bread flour and all purpose flour, what pastry flour is and why you would use it, or why cake flour produces light-as-air sponge cakes, this post is for you. I’m going to break it all down. This is a monster of a post, but it is packed with information.

Wheat: The Basics

Wheat flours are produced by milling wheat kernels (aka. wheat berries – the same ones you see in the bulk bins of your grocery store!) of various strains of wheat. I use Bob’s Red Mill flours in my own kitchen (you can read more about why here). The gluten percentages described in this post are specific to their brand and milling specifications, but are generally consistent with other brands of flour. As flours naturally age, gluten and protein increases. These qualities are desirable, but naturally take time.

Wheat kernels are comprised of three basic parts: germ (the embryo), bran (the kernel shell), and endosperm. Wheat germ and wheat bran are high in natural oils, nutrients, fiber, and minerals. They also contain protein. In contrast, the endosperm consists primarily of protein and starch molecules.

All-purpose flours and refined flours are produced exclusively from the milling and grinding of the endosperm. The germ and bran are removed from these flours. The endosperm is broken into very small particles, or streams, and analyzed for protein and starch content. This information allows millers to create specific flour blends with certain baking characteristics. Stone-ground flours are the exception to the rule, as they can contain some germ and bran in the final product.

In comparison, whole wheat flours are produced from the milling of the entire wheat kernel (germ, bran, and endosperm). For this reason, whole wheat flours are generally higher in protein than all-purpose flours.

Understanding Gluten

Gluten is simply a term for the specific proteins (glutenins and gliadins) found in wheat. All proteins are comprised of chains of amino acids. In dry form, wheat proteins has little to no structure. When combined with water, these gluten proteins change shape, form bonds with one another, and produce tightly coiled, yet highly elastic structures. Imagine a slinky shape made up of wheat proteins.

Similar to a slinky, these protein structures have the ability to stretch to a large degree. The proteins can stretch and expand, yet inherently provide structure and shape. This unique characteristic of gluten allows us to create airy breads and pastries that hold their shape and chewy al dente pasta strands, among many other things. Gluten and it’s stretching ability allows us to make long thin sheets of puff pastry, among other things, that don’t break or crumble during rolling.

Very important note: While whole wheat flours do contain high quantities of protein and gluten, they generally produce weaker gluten strands (due to the presence of the bran and germ in the flour). Strong gluten strands allow for expansion and air. Weak gluten strands make this more difficult. This is why 100% whole wheat breads and pastries have a tendency to be denser in structure.

As you add more water to gluten, you produce more concentrated gluten. When this mixture is worked, stretched, or handled (think: kneading), the proteins stretch and become even more elastic. The less the mixture is worked, the less concentrated the gluten will be. Some types of baking benefit from the development of gluten (ie. bread or pizza doughs, pasta, puff pastry, etc.) and certain types of baking do not (ie. pancakes, baking powder/baking soda leavened batters, pie dough, cakes).

Depending on their own properties, other ingredients also have the ability to strengthen or weaken gluten. Understanding this is important for technique, as well as recipe development. For example, the ions in salt tend to increase gluten strength. Alternatively, larger volumes of sugar and fat (think: sweet pastries) will decrease overall gluten strength. Acidity can also have a weakening effect on gluten, which is why certain pastry dough recipes will recommend adding a touch of vinegar or lemon juice to doughs.

Different Types of Baking Flour + Why/When to Use Them

Certain strains of wheat (eg. hard red winter wheat) contain higher protein – aka. gluten – than other strains of wheat (eg. soft white wheat), and are used accordingly to create different types of flours.

I’ve included basic protein ranges for various flour types – as well as helpful reference guide at the bottom of this post. These protein percentages can vary significantly from brand to brand, but allow for consistency and reliability across bags and bags of flour, which is very important in baking. While each crop of wheat will vary, these protein thresholds below are set by Bob’s Red Mill and are used to test each shipment of wheat they receive:

Unbleached All-Purpose Flour (12% – 13% Protein)

The work horse of all flour blends and my basic flour of choice. Unless recipes specific other flour types, most baking recipes are created with the assumption that all-purpose flour will be used to make them. It is important to note that all-purpose flour in the United States is not the same thing as all-purpose flour in other countries (which can vary significantly in protein percentage).

All-purpose flour is generally produced from hard red winter wheat. It is refined, which means that the bran and germ are removed during milling. This produces a flour that is light in color and has a relatively mid-level protein amounts that can be used for most baking purposes.

Bleached All-Purpose Flour vs Unbleached All-Purpose Flour:

Unlike unbleached flours, bleached flours are chemically altered with bleaching agents (benzoyl peroxide or chlorine dioxide) to whiten flour and speed up production. They sometimes contain bromate to improve rise (ps. most countries outside the United States ban bromate) and elasticity too. Bleached flours were a quick solution to produce vast quantities of flour for the masses.

As a side effect of the bleaching process, bleached all purpose flours generally contain less protein than unbleached all purpose flour. Some pastry books will recommend it for this reason, as lower protein flours can produce more flaky baked goods. I rarely, if ever, use bleached flours.

In contrast, Bob’s Red Mill flours and other high-quality flours never contain chemicals and achieve a similar effect naturally by adding malted barley flour to their all-purpose flour, which improves rise and elasticity.

Bread Flour (12.5% – 15% Protein)

Bread flour is produced from hard red spring wheat, which is high in protein (unlike hard red winter wheat, which contains less protein). Like all-purpose flour, bread flour is refined and does not the bran or germ of the wheat kernel. The higher protein in bread flour allows more for increased gluten development when combined with water. Gluten allows doughs to expand, hold large amounts of air (think: lovely artisanal bread with delicious air pockets) and produce high rise.

More gluten development also improves chew (note: this is why durum wheat, which is incredibly high in protein, is used to produce most store-bought pasta). Some cookie recipes use bread flour in addition to all purpose flour for this purpose.

Higher protein flour – aka. bread flour – is beneficial to doughs and baked goods that require more elasticity and structure: yeast breads, pizza doughs, certain pastry doughs (puff pastry, strudel dough, etc.).

100% Whole Wheat Flour (13.5% Protein)

Unlike all-purpose flour, true whole wheat flours are produced from the milling of the entire wheat kernel (primarily hard red wheat). Aka. whole grain flour. Whole wheat flour contain the bran and germ, which produces a flour with a slightly darker color, stronger more nutty flavor, and higher nutritional content. This is especially true of stone ground whole wheat flours.

Since whole wheat flours contain the bran and germ, they are generally higher in protein than all-purpose flours. Despite its high protein content, the presence of the bran and germ makes it more difficult for whole wheat flour to produce as much gluten development and elasticity as all purpose flour or bread flour. This is why 100% whole wheat breads (and other baked goods) can be more dense and less airy in structure.

Flours with higher protein absorb more liquids than low protein flours. For this reason, it is important to adjust liquid amounts when using whole wheat flour in place of all purpose flour in most recipes. To improve the nutritional or enhance the flavor of baked goods – without affecting structure – you can substitute a small portion of all-purpose flour with equal quantities of whole wheat flour with little effect.

Storage: Since whole wheat flours contain the whole wheat kennel, they have a tendency to have a shorter shelf life than all-purpose flours. Unless I am going through a bag of whole wheat flour in a short period of time, I like to store my whole wheat flours in the freezer to preserve more nutrients and prolong its shelf life.

Pastry Flour

Unlike all of the other flours mentioned above, pastry flour is milled from a different strain of wheat: soft white wheat. Soft white wheat contains significantly less protein than red wheat. As a result, flours made from soft white wheat are lower in protein and produce less gluten development.

Low gluten development is preferable for baked goods that don’t benefit from increased elasticity: baking soda and baking powder leavened batters (quick breads, muffins, cakes, pancakes, etc.) and pie doughs. Lower gluten also produces more tender baked goods.

While unbleached refined pastry flour (aka. germ and bran is removed) is available and contains even less protein (roughly 9%) , whole wheat pastry flour (8% – 11% protein) is my go-to whole grain flour for baking. It gives you the best of both worlds, and I often substitute it 1:1 for all-purpose flour with great success (ex: this poppy seed bread). The difference to all purpose flour is indiscernible.

Whole wheat pastry flour allows you to produce tender, fluffy 100% whole grain baked goods — with all the added nutritional benefits — than whole wheat flour (13.5% protein) would generally allow.

100% White/Ivory Whole Wheat Flour (13% – 16% protein)

White whole wheat flour is relatively newer to the market, and is produced from white winter wheat kernels that are high in protein. Bob’s Red Mill’s version goes by the name of ivory whole wheat flour. As you can notice, it is actually higher in protein content than whole wheat flour.

White whole wheat flour is 100% whole grain and contains the bran, germ, and endosperm. However, since it is milled from naturally white wheat kernels, it is significantly lighter in color than whole wheat flour. It is also sweeter in flavor than whole wheat flour (yet offers the exact same nutritional benefits) and some people prefer it to whole wheat flour for this reason.

Since it is naturally high in protein, it works incredibly well as a whole grain alternative to bread flour or other baked goods that benefit from increased elasticity and gluten development (yeast dough, pizza, puff pastry, strudel dough, etc.). White/ivory whole wheat flour is less ideal for baked goods that benefit from tenderness, and for this reason I don’t use it in baking soda and baking powder leavened batters (quick breads, muffins, cakes, pancakes, etc.) and pie doughs.

Cake Flour (6.5% protein)

Last but not least, cake flour is generally milled from low protein wheat strains (sometimes these go by the name of club wheat). This yields minimal gluten development when combined with water. This is disastrous for some things (ie. bread) and amazing for baked goods, such as angel food cakes, genoise or sponge cake, biscuits, and lighter-than-air muffins.

Now that we’ve broken down the basics of gluten, it is easy to understand why using a flour with 6.5% protein vs. a flour with 12% to 13% protein (all purpose flour) would yield two completely different baked goods.

Cake flours are also milled and sifted to an extra fine texture. For this reason, they absorb liquids very quickly. Generic cake flours are bleached and cut with cornstarch (read the ingredients). Adding cornstarch effectively dilutes the protein/gluten of the flour even more (this is also the reasoning behind DIY cake flour – made by combining all purpose flour and cornstarch).

In contrast, Bob’s Red Mill cake flour is unbleached, contains no chemicals, and zero corn starch. I love it! While I don’t use cake flour that often, it has the ability to produce lighter-than-air baked goods.

Conclusion

As you can see, different types of flour are not created equal and are never truly interchangeable with one another. Once you understand the basic properties of various wheat flours, it gives you the ability to play around, create your own blends, and get creative in the kitchen. It also allows you to tailor baked goods to your own liking (texture, chew, flavor, etc.).

If you want to learn even more, here are handful of my favorite cooking resources [affiliate links]:


4. Buckwheat Flour

Buckwheat may have wheat in its name but there is no wheat in the seed or flour made from grinding those seeds. Buckwheat is highly nutritious – it’s a good source of protein, omega fatty acids, B vitamins, manganese, fiber, copper, magnesium, and other minerals. Buckwheat flour has a strong nutty taste and it results in dark baked goods. It’s used for breads, baked goods, pancakes, waffles, and soba noodles. Growing up, the only pancakes my mother ever made were buckwheat ones so they’re still my first choice.


This is most people’s go-to for home pizza baking. It’s easy to find in any grocery store (again, King Arthur Flour is a favorite brand), is affordable, and adds some extra oomph and crispiness to thin crust and New York-style pizzas. It will make your crust crispy on the outside and chewy and textured on the inside.

Bread flour won’t tear as you stretch it out, but it can sometimes be hard to form into the desired shape, continually springing back because of the high gluten content. If you are interested in even higher gluten content, look for King Arthur Flour’s Sir Lancelot High-Gluten Flour with 14 percent gluten. It's sold online on the King Arthur Flour website.


No Cook Playdough Recipes

1. 1-2-3 PLAY DOUGH

One-cup cold water
One-cup salt
Two-teaspoons vegetable oil
Two tablespoons cornstarch
Three cups flour
Tempera paint or food coloring (adjust amount for color desired)
Mix the water, salt, oil and paint together.
Gradually work in the flour and cornstarch until you get the consistency of bread dough.

2. NO COOK KOOL AID PLAYDOUGH #1

This is my favorite play dough because–it’s fast–no cooking–easy ingredients and smells good—tastes bad…

The original recipe calls for 1 cup of flour–however just having made it–we added another two or three cups of flour. When making play dough, you can always add more flour if it is too wet and a little more hot water if it’s too dry! My 4.5 and 6 year old grand-daughters thought it was the greatest thing ever! (Barb 10/3/10)
Need:
2 1/2 c flour, sifted
1/2 c salt
3 T cooking oil
1 pkg Kool-aid (unsweetened)
1 c very hot water
Mix together flour, salt, oil, and Kool-aid.
Add the cup of almost boiling water. Mix well.
Knead the mixture until it forms a soft dough.
Have fun!
Store in a sealed container in the refrigerator.
Your play dough will be the scent and color of the Kool-Aid!
*Any other unsweetened, powdered drink mix may be substituted.
*There may be colored hands but it washes off. (My own experiences have never produced colored hands–hower some have said theirs did.)

3. KOOL AID PLAYDOUGH #2

1 cup flour
1 cup water
1/2 cup salt
3 teaspoons Cream of Tartar
1 package Kool-Aid Mix (any flavor of unsweetened)
1 tablespoon cooking oil
Mix dry ingredients together in a large sauce pan. Slowly add water mixed with oil and stir over medium heat until mixture thickens to dough. Turn out onto a heatproof bread board or counter top and knead until cool enough for children to handle. Dough will be the color of the Kool-Aid mix and will smell like the Kool-Aid mix. (Can be stored in a tightly covered container for up to six months)

4. KOOL AID SCENTED PLAYDOUGH RECIPE

2 1/2 c. flour
1/2 c. salt
2 c. boiling water
1 tbsp. alum
3 tbsp. cooking oil
1-2 pkg. Kool-Aid (# of pkg. will determine color)
Mix dry ingredients.
Add boiling water and stir quickly.
Add cooking oil and mix well.
When cool enough, use hands.
Keeps well in airtight container in refrigerator.

5. MICROWAVE PLAYDOUGH RECIPE

1 c. flour
3/4 c. water
2 tsp. cream of tartar
1 pkg. unsweetened kool aid
1/2 c. salt
1 tbsp. cooking oil
1 tsp. powdered alum
Combine ingredients.
Heat in microwave and stir until mixture forms a soft ball.
Stir about every 10 seconds.
Put mixture on tray or wax paper and knead until cool.
Store in an airtight container. Source: Cooks.com

6. BABY OIL PLAYDOUGH RECIPE

Mix together:
2 cups flour
1 cup salt
4 teaspoons cream of tartar
2 cups water plus food coloring
2 tablespoons baby oil (other oil can work, too)
Place over low heat and stir often until playdough is the consistency of mashed potatoes. Knead when cool.

7. MASHED POTATO PLAYDOUGH

Need: Five potatoes, Flour
Bake potatoes in their skins until they are ‘eating consistency’ soft. Peel and then mash the potatoes. Combine three cups flour to every four cups of mashed potato and roll until you form a good dough.

You can also make mashed potato mountains using INSTANT POTATO FLAKES with a little less water than potato directions give. (You want a thicker consistency) When potatoes are cool, it is ready to use.

8. JELL-O PLAYDOUGH

1 cup flour
1/2 cup salt
1 cup water
1 tablespoon oil
2 teaspoons Cream of Tartar
1 (3-1/2 oz.) package “unsweetened” Jell-O
Mix all ingredients together and cook over medium heat, stirring constantly until consistency of mashed potatoes.
Let cool and knead with floured hands until dry.
*Storage: This recipe needs to cool completely “before” storing it in an airtight container!
*Note: The items made from this play dough recipe can be painted when they are dry.

9. BIRD SEED PLAYDOUGH

Birdseed
2 cups flour
1 cup salt
Water

Mix flour, salt & birdseed with sufficient water to make play dough texture.

NOTE: When done playing, do NOT place the play dough outsdoors for the birds. Salt can be dangerous to animals including birds. It can make them ill–or kill them if consumed in large quantities.

10. SAND TEXTURED PLAY DOUGH RECIPE

½ cup sand
½ cup cornstarch
½ cup boiling water
Mix ingredients together and knead.

11. SAND PLAY RECIPE #2

• 1 part white glue
• 2 parts flour
• 2 parts sand
• 2 parts water
Mix together to create a dough. You may need to add water or flour depending on the consistency.

12. SAND PLAY RECIPE #3

Add sand to quick set cement and follow the instructions for mixing the cement. Use this recipe when you have a mold or have created a pattern in the sand.

HOMEMADE ‘MOON’ SAND (Way cheaper than buying it!)
Ingredients:
1 1/2 cups water
3 cups corn starch
6 cups play sand
Optional: Add package of Kool-aid if want it colored

1. First thoroughly mix together the sand, cornstarch, and water. It will take a few minutes to get it smooth. Really work it in with your fingers…and then it’s done!

2. You may need to add a bit more water–but be careful and add just a small amount at a time it could get goopy.

3. When done–Place in an airtight container. Next time, revive it with 2-3 tablespoons of water. Just sprinkle it over and work it in.

FYI:
•Play sand comes in a variety or colors. A 50lb bag of play sand is usually about $5.00.
•To use the entire 50 pounds, you’d need 24 boxes of cornstarch.
•It may not make perfect sandcastles, but is fun to squeeze, squish, bury things, make handprints & other shapes. Some have said their castles came out nicely! Let us know!

13. PLAY DOUGH that LOOKS LIKE MUD!

Bring 3 cups water and 3 tablespoons of vegetable oil to a boil.
While the mixture is heating, put 3 cups all-purpose flour, 2 tablespoons cream of tartar, and 1 1/2 cups salt into a large bowl.

  • Carefully mix the wet and dry together and knead until smooth.
  • For the SPRING time and MUD additions, add brown tempera paint (either dry or liquid) and 2 or 3 Tablespoons of coffee grounds. It really looks like dirt!

NOTE: I came across a site that used the above recipe to enhance a study unit — Wormy Wednesday–Worm Diet and Predators! The website is titled No doubt learning.

Andrea, the website publisher has this to say about “Mud Play Dough”…

I whipped up a batch of “MUD” play dough following the recipe from kidactivities.net. This playdough really does look like dirt and even incorporates coffee grounds (which worms eat!)! Using rubber fishing worms and a bag of “junk” (a collection of leftover shells, beads, beans, rocks, etc.) my girls were asked to show how a worm lives, what a worm eats, and how it protects itself from predators. (Thank you, Andrea!)

14. MAKE MOON CRATERS

Materials Needed:
Liquid Starch
Rock Salt,
Glue with food coloring
Procedure:
Mix 1/2 cup of liquid starch with 2 cups of rock salt and 1/2 cup of glue plus food coloring or tempera.
This makes a gooey, rocky mixture.
Let the children freely pile onto cardboard to create a three-dimensional structure.


Types of Flour Ground from Rice

Rice flour is produced from uncooked rice that has been ground into a powder ranging from course to very fine. Rice ground to a course texture is often used in baked items such as cookies and cakes. Rice that has been finely ground has the consistency of cornstarch and is often used in many of the same ways as cornstarch, such as a thickener for sauces and puddings. Depending on the variety and texture of the rice flour used in a recipe, the consistency of the resulting foods may range from very light and soft to somewhat gritty in texture. Several test recipes may be required before the best results can be achieved.

Standard rice flour is available in brown or white varieties. Brown rice flour is produced from the entire rice kernel, excluding the outer husk, while white rice flour is produced from grinding polished rice (the bran and germ have been removed). The color of brown rice flour is actually only a shade darker than white rice flour, but its texture is less smooth. For most recipes, both types of rice flour may be used interchangeably. Rice flour can be used successfully in some baked goods, such as cakes, cookies, and dumplings, but because it contains no gluten, it is not suitable for baking yeast breads. It can be combined with wheat flour for bread making, but the resulting loaf is rather crumbly. Rice flour is very popular for preparing a variety of Asian noodles. Rice flour is sometimes referred to as rice powder or rice starch.

Brown rice flour is a type of flour made from rice kernels that have been processed to remove the outer hulls, but not the nutritious bran layers covering the kernel. When the kernels are ground into flour, the resulting color is only a shade darker than flour milled from polished rice and the texture is not quite as smooth. For most recipes, both brown and white rice flour may be used interchangeably, but brown rice has a nuttier flavor. When used in baked goods, such as cakes and cookies, brown rice flour provides a grainy texture with a fine, dry crumb. Brown rice flour is gluten free so it is not suitable for baking yeast breads, but it can be combined with wheat flour for this purpose.

Mochiko flour is milled from mochi rice, which is a short-grained, glutinous rice common in Asia. It is often used to thicken sauces and food mixes, providing a strong bonding that can withstand refrigerator and freezer temperatures without separating. It is often used for breading foods prior to frying and for making traditional foods that require flour, such as desserts and baked goods, or rice dumplings referred to as Japanese mochi. Mochiko flour is also known as sweet glutinous rice flour, sweet rice flour, or mochi flour.

White rice flour is a type of flour produced from grinding polished rice (the bran and germ have been removed) into a powder. White rice flour can be used as a thickening agent for sauces and puddings. It is also very popular for the preparation of a variety of Asian noodles. It is used in some baked goods, such as cakes, cookies, and dumplings, but because the flour contains no gluten, it is not suitable for baking yeast breads. It must be combined with wheat flour in order to attain the properties of gluten formation necessary for yeast dough to properly rise.


10 Buckwheat Flour Recipes (all gluten-free)

Now that we know the basics of buckwheat and buckwheat flour, let’s talk buckwheat flour recipes! Below are my top 10 ways to use buckwheat flour.

Air Fryer Falafel

This Air Fryer Falafel recipe is a fun plant-based protein dish.

The buckwheat pairs nicely with the cumin and chickpeas in this recipe. It just adds the extra hint of nuttiness that really makes this falafel delicious.

Not to mention the buckwheat flour in this recipe helps add complete protein to this plant-based protein dish.

Chocolate Protein Energy Bites

I think that buckwheat flour pairs beautifully with anything chocolate and these chocolate protein energy bites definitely apply to this rule.

Often times energy bites will use oats or some other form of flour as their base. I thought that using buckwheat flour in these energy bites was a nice change.

These bites not only sport a whopping 5g of protein per bite, but they also are delicious and easy to make.

Buckwheat and Apple Cake

A dense yet moist cake featuring buckwheat flour and almond flour.

I love it because not only does it use buckwheat, but it also has a lingonberry jam filling. It takes me back to my Swedish roots.

It’s delicious but might require some intermediate baking skills.

Chocolate Buckwheat Cookies with White Chocolate Chips

Don’t like having to combine 50+ flours together to get a decent gluten-free cookie? Then this recipe is for you! It only requires buckwheat flour.

The nuttiness of the buckwheat complements that cocoa beautifully in these chocolate buckwheat cookies. Not to mention they are easy to make and hold their shape nicely. (Am I the only one who struggles with their cookies cracking or coming out misshaped?)

5 Ingredient Buckwheat Bread

This recipe comes from my favorite gluten-free buckwheat flour brand, Anthony’s (this is not sponsored – but this is an amazon affiliate link – I just truly love them).

It’s such a quick, easy, and delicious recipe. Definitely worth a shot, especially if you’ve been meaning to try to make your own bread.

Peanut Butter Protein Bites

I mentioned earlier that buckwheat is a decent source of complete plant-based protein.

Building on that, these peanut butter protein balls are a great snack option. They are packed with protein from both the buckwheat flour and peanut butter and they are tasty enough to honor your sweet tooth.

Just one ball has 8g of protein. How awesome is that?

Fluffy Buckwheat Pancakes

What better way to kick-off your morning than with some gluten-free fluffy buckwheat pancakes?

The author behind this recipe from Nutritionist Meets Chef describes the pancakes as:

“[I]ncredibly light, airy and fluffy. Perfect for breakfast as well for a weekend brunch. A real pancake dream.”

– Nutritionist Meets Chef

After that description, who wouldn’t want a stack of these?

Gluten-free Buckwheat Coffee Cake

Need something to pair with your coffee or tea? Try this coffee cake.

The buckwheat in this recipe adds a delicious nutty flavor to this coffee cake that honestly can’t be beat.

Not to mention, I give you two fun ways to add a delicious cinnamon crumble to the top. Yum.

Easy Chocolate Peanut Butter Fudge

This fudge is probably my favorite dessert to make at home. It’s quick, easy, and combines the delicious flavors of chocolate and peanut butter. Who can pass that up?

The buckwheat flour added to this recipe gives it an added nutty boost. Truly a treat worth trying.

Gluten-Free Buckwheat Crepes

Buckwheat crepes are commonly known in French as “crêpes de blé noir” or “crêpes de sarrasin” (blé noir and sarrasin both translating to buckwheat).

They are the quintessence of traditional Brittany cuisine…

Made with the simplest of ingredients (buckwheat flour, egg, salt and water), these 100% buckwheat crepes are the most authentic savoury French crepe recipe you’ll find.

– Audrey from Pardon Your French

She’s got me sold, I’ll take a plate… no wait make that 2.

Have you ever cooked with buckwheat? What’s your favorite recipe to use buckwheat in? Let me know in the comments.


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